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In a typical IT biometric system, a person registers with the system when one or more of his physical and behavioral characteristics are obtained. This information is then processed by a numerical algorithm, and entered into a database. The algorithm creates a digital representation of the obtained biometric. If the user is new to the system, he or she enrolls, which means that the digital template of the biometric is entered into the database. Each subsequent attempt to use the system, or authenticate, requires the biometric of the user to be captured again, and processed into a digital template. That template is then compared to those existing in the database to determine a match. The process of converting the acquired biometric into a digital template for comparison is completed each time the user attempts to authenticate to the system.
The comparison process involves the use of a Hamming distance. This is a measurement of how similar two bit strings are. For example, two identical bit strings have a Hamming Distance of zero, while two totally dissimilar ones have a Hamming Distance of one. Thus, the Hamming distance measures the percentage of dissimilar bits out of the number of comparisons made. Ideally, when a user logs in, nearly all of his features match; then when someone else tries to log in, who does not fully match, and the system will not allow the new person to log in.
Current technologies have widely varying Equal Error Rates, varying from as low as 60% and as high as 99.9%.